liste références


1
Rev. M. Hyamson, ed. and tr., Mosaicarum et romanarum legum collatio, London, 1913 (reprint Buffalo, 1997), pp. 82-83. (Coll. leg. mos. et rom. 5.3.1-2)

2 Columbia Encyclopedia, 5th edition, New York, 1993, s.v. Minerva, p. 1782.

3 Wilhelm Ensslin, Die Religionspolitik des Kaisers Theodosius des Grossen, Munich, 1953. In: Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Year 1953, No. 2.

4 Leviticus 18:22, 20:13.

5 Institutes of Justinian 4.18.4.

6 Seneca, De ira 1.21; Juvenal 6.371-373, 10.306; Martial 6.2, 9.6.4, 9.8.5; Statius, Silvae 4.3.16; Suetonius, Nero 28, Domitian 7.

7 Code of Theodosius 9.7.3.

8 Matthew 19:12; Digest of Justinian 50.16.128.

9 Digest of Justinian 21.1.1.9 in conjunction with 21.1.5-6 and 21.1.38.7.

10 Digest of Justinian 1.7.2.1, 1.7.40.1, 23.3.39.1, 28.2.6.

11 Juvenal 1.22.

12 Athanasius, History of the Arians, 5.38.

13 Sextus Aurelius Victor, Epitome of the Caesars, 42.19.

14 Lucian, The Eunuch, 6.

15 Aristotle, Generation of Animals, 4.1.

16 Pliny, Natural History, 11.49.

17 Firmicus Maternus, Mathesis, 3.9.1.

18 Clement of Alexandria, The Educator, 3.4.26.

19 Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 3.1.1.

20 Epiphanius of Salamis, Basket of Heresies, 4.3.2-5.

21 Gregory Nazianzen, Oration 37, 16-17.

22 Code of Theodosius, 16.5.17.

23 Otto Seeck, Geschichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt, Stuttgart, 1920-1922 (reprint 1966), vol. 5, p. 531, note regarding p. 229, line 9.

24 Code of Theodosius, 9.7.6.

25 New Constitutions of Justinian, 77 and 141. For the dates I rely on Derrick Sherwin Bailey, Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition, London, 1955 (reprint 1975), pp. 73ff.

26 As Tertullian had done, for example, in Monogamy, 3: "The Lord Himself opened the kingdom of heaven to eunuchs and He Himself lived as a eunuch. The apostle [Paul] also, following His example, made himself a eunuch and indicated that continence is what he himself prefers."

27 Visigothic Code 3.5.5-6.

28 Aristotle, Generation of Animals, I 2. "The male is t he one that has power to generate in another ... while the female is the one [that has power to generate] in itself." Greek: "tô arren men einai to dunamenon gennan eis heteron ... to de thêlu to eis auto."

29 Code of Hammurabi § 172 and following, and  § 184 and following.

30 See end of myth of Atrahasis, Tablet III 7, in Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others, tr. by Stephanie Dalley, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, p. 35.

31 Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 38. See translation in Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, edited with translation and commentary by J. Gwyn Griffiths, University of Wales Press, 1970.

32 Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 14.

33 Plutarch, On Isis and Osiris, 38.

34 Rev. Nancy Wilson, Our Tribe: Queer Folks, God, Jesus, and the Bible, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995.

35 This use of bethulah is found in Genesis 24:16.

36 The Meridian Hebrew-English/English-Hebrew Dictionary, edited by Dov Ben-Abba, New York: Meridian, 1994. Find 'elem on page 255, col. 2 of the Hebrew-English section. Arabic has a corresponding word ghulam meaning "boy, lad, youth," from a verb ghalima meaning "to be excited by lust, in heat." In ancient times, heat was considered an attribute of males.

37 Exodus 2:8.

38 Genesis 24:43.

39 Brian Whitaker- arab without god, 2016 https://medium.com/@Brian_Whit/transgender-issues-in-the-middle-east-9f40d0559afa